Ethernet is the undisputed, global choice for Metro Access Networks (MANs) and Local Access Networks (LANs). However, existing copper access networks do not facilitate an end-to-end high-bandwidth connection, creating a bottleneck. This bottleneck is the frst mile of access. This refers to the access link (most often a TDM-based copper circuit) from the business customer's offce LAN to their service provider's MAN. ADTRAN affords service providers the ability to remove this bottleneck through the utilization of an improved data transmission standard. This standard, ITU-T G.998.2, is known as Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM). ADTRAN EFM over Copper (EoCu) defnes a way to effectively and universally bond together, lower bandwidth copper loops or pairs of wires creating a Carrier Ethernet access connection.